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Self-Reflexive Essay on Intercultural Communication

Self-Reflexive Essay on Intercultural Communication

Culture is an infinite-coloured rainbow of cultures. Every continent, every country, every province, county or state down to the village level, there are people with distinct cultures, values and core beliefs which make them who they are- distinct from the next culture. All through the ages as far as civilization can be traced cultures have always interacted be it positively or negatively. The ways of interaction vary from intermarriages, competition for natural resources like water, hostilities and wars, alliances and pacts, sports and other leisure activities such as communal ceremonies… the list goes on.

What I am trying to say is that diverse as cultures, tribes, ethnicities, peoples and so on are, there has, there is and there will always be connections created between various cultures. As it has been over the ages the more that neighbouring cultures interacted through first and foremost a common language, the more they assimilated into one other. In Europe in cities such as Rome, London and Istanbul which started out as a meeting point between people from different languages, different “trade tongues” were being spoken between merchants, sailors, soldiers, shopkeepers and so on. It is for this simple reason that I understand the values of intercultural relationships and communication. Intercultural communication is the clearest way towards achieving globalization.

I have personally interacted with people from all over the world, people with beliefs completely dissimilar from mine, people speaking different languages, people with mannerisms totally unlike mine. I have interacted with these people a lot over the years ever since I was a young boy in Kansas. I was three months from my third birthday when my father came home from work one evening but there was one thing different about him that day. I saw him through the living room window as he parked his car outside on the driveway. It was a habit of ours as my father came home from work every evening, that as he got home I would run outside to meet him and he would catch me in his arms, throw me in the air, catch me and throw me up again.

We would then walk towards the house as he ruffled my hair and I would ask about his day at the cement factory as my mother had taught me to ask. That day, I sensed that there was something different. First, my father slammed the car door shut. My father was a gentle giant. I had never seen him angry before. That day though he was angry, I knew it at once. And so, as my father approached the house, grocery bags in his hands with fast, brisk steps so unlike his long limbering strides, I closed the curtain of the window and sat down on the sofa, my heart beating fast. I knew it somewhere in me during one of the coldest of November evenings I have ever shivered through that today was going to be different.

The moment my father opened the living room door, he went straight to his chair at the corner of the room and plumbed his heavy frame on the cushion. He looked around at me and waved towards me. “Come here son,” He waved over and I dutifully obliged. He sat me on the arm of his chair and ruffled my hair and started, “Son, sometimes parents have to make very hard decisions…”That is the best memory of my father who died less than two years later from liver cirrhosis.

That was the beginning of my life. My parents separated two weeks later and got divorced just one month later. Child custody decided that I was going to stay with my mother and my father would visit as often as he could which was not that often. Six months after the divorce my father went two whole months without visiting. Around that time mother decided rather bravely that we needed to change environment. Kansas was too painful for her, and even though I did not know it yet, the move to San Diego would be very beneficial for me.

San Diego was my mother’s childhood home where her whole extended family lived. She was a Hispanic, my father was Caucasian and so their child was pretty much a child of two worlds. My father was a free spirit, born in the Wild West where he mounted and rode a horse by his fifth summer while my mother was a conservative Catholic something which she passed on to me. Anyway when we arrived at San Diego eight months after that fateful evening my parents had that one fight which would change my life forever, I was expecting something totally but I was ready of the extent of change.

My mother’s family all lived in one block in a low-income part of the district in a ghetto neighbourhood in the city of San Diego. My mother’s set of grandparents were still alive at that time even though they were well into their eighties. My grandmother knew only a little English but she loved to tell stories to her grandchildren. We were sixteen grandchildren in total, and we were never at the same place at the same time. My cousin Enzo, who was thirteen at the time was the one who translated the stories and jokes my grandmother told. My mother, even though Spanish was her first language, had never taught me a word of the language but I suppose she thought I was too young.

We became close, Enzo and I and I looked up to him like a big brother. He was very welcoming and understanding. At the family dinners Enzo told me which food was which in Spanish. He taught me Spanish to a great extent. In fact my interest in Spanish was born primarily because Enzo was a very good teacher. My mother took me to a nearby Catholic School St. Teresa’s Kindergarten where the students were predominantly black or Hispanic. It was from this early age that I learnt about many diverse cultures. At the kindergarten level we interacted as brothers and sisters, blacks and Hispanics and the few Caucasian students.

I remember one instance growing up in San Diego when I was in tenth grade, a freshman in high school, our class got a new classmate Lee Chong who was in fact from China. He knew a little bit of English. His native language was Cantonese and he knew only a little bit of English. I instantly remembered my first interaction with Enzo and became close friends with Lee. Lee was very brilliant. I taught him English and he was a quick learner. Their family was into the restaurant business and they had come all the way from Hong Kong. Lee’s uncle who ran a chain of restaurants in San Diego had opened one large restaurant and decided to acquire the services of his younger brother, a chef struggling in the highly competitive restaurants of Hong Kong.

Lee and I became friends immediately. I even remember one instance when a twelfth grader, a known bully in school, intimidated Lee in the locker room hallway and I intervened. Lee and I were in the hallway. I was talking to Alex, a classmate and Lee was reading the notice board with moderate success because by then he was not that conversant in English. This bully, Kevin came striding through the hallway with his buddies. He was looking for attention, as he often did and the first thing he noticed was Lee, peering at the notice board through his rather thick glasses. Kevin came and tapped Lee on the shoulder rather heavily, his glasses almost came off. I made a move immediately but it was Alex shrill feminine shout that caught the ear. “Hey, why don’t you pick somebody your own size?” she shouted at the bully. Kevin was so caught off guard that when I said “Yeah Kevin” all he did was wheel around, glare at Lee and get lost. Lee took only two school semesters to fully acclimatize to the new climate and in that time I learnt Mandarin and Cantonese. These two moments in my life are what have shaped me into the man I am right now and I am thankful for them.

Self-Reflexive Essay on Intercultural Communication

Culture is an infinite-coloured rainbow of cultures. Every continent, every country, every province, county or state down to the village level, there are people with distinct cultures, values and core beliefs which make them who they are- distinct from the next culture. All through the ages as far as civilization can be traced cultures have always interacted be it positively or negatively. The ways of interaction vary from intermarriages, competition for natural resources like water, hostilities and wars, alliances and pacts, sports and other leisure activities such as communal ceremonies… the list goes on.

What I am trying to say is that diverse as cultures, tribes, ethnicities, peoples and so on are, there has, there is and there will always be connections created between various cultures. As it has been over the ages the more that neighbouring cultures interacted through first and foremost a common language, the more they assimilated into one other. In Europe in cities such as Rome, London and Istanbul which started out as a meeting point between people from different languages, different “trade tongues” were being spoken between merchants, sailors, soldiers, shopkeepers and so on. It is for this simple reason that I understand the values of intercultural relationships and communication. Intercultural communication is the clearest way towards achieving globalization.

I have personally interacted with people from all over the world, people with beliefs completely dissimilar from mine, people speaking different languages, people with mannerisms totally unlike mine. I have interacted with these people a lot over the years ever since I was a young boy in Kansas. I was three months from my third birthday when my father came home from work one evening but there was one thing different about him that day. I saw him through the living room window as he parked his car outside on the driveway. It was a habit of ours as my father came home from work every evening, that as he got home I would run outside to meet him and he would catch me in his arms, throw me in the air, catch me and throw me up again.

We would then walk towards the house as he ruffled my hair and I would ask about his day at the cement factory as my mother had taught me to ask. That day, I sensed that there was something different. First, my father slammed the car door shut. My father was a gentle giant. I had never seen him angry before. That day though he was angry, I knew it at once. And so, as my father approached the house, grocery bags in his hands with fast, brisk steps so unlike his long limbering strides, I closed the curtain of the window and sat down on the sofa, my heart beating fast. I knew it somewhere in me during one of the coldest of November evenings I have ever shivered through that today was going to be different.

The moment my father opened the living room door, he went straight to his chair at the corner of the room and plumbed his heavy frame on the cushion. He looked around at me and waved towards me. “Come here son,” He waved over and I dutifully obliged. He sat me on the arm of his chair and ruffled my hair and started, “Son, sometimes parents have to make very hard decisions…”That is the best memory of my father who died less than two years later from liver cirrhosis.

That was the beginning of my life. My parents separated two weeks later and got divorced just one month later. Child custody decided that I was going to stay with my mother and my father would visit as often as he could which was not that often. Six months after the divorce my father went two whole months without visiting. Around that time mother decided rather bravely that we needed to change environment. Kansas was too painful for her, and even though I did not know it yet, the move to San Diego would be very beneficial for me.

San Diego was my mother’s childhood home where her whole extended family lived. She was a Hispanic, my father was Caucasian and so their child was pretty much a child of two worlds. My father was a free spirit, born in the Wild West where he mounted and rode a horse by his fifth summer while my mother was a conservative Catholic something which she passed on to me. Anyway when we arrived at San Diego eight months after that fateful evening my parents had that one fight which would change my life forever, I was expecting something totally but I was ready of the extent of change.

My mother’s family all lived in one block in a low-income part of the district in a ghetto neighbourhood in the city of San Diego. My mother’s set of grandparents were still alive at that time even though they were well into their eighties. My grandmother knew only a little English but she loved to tell stories to her grandchildren. We were sixteen grandchildren in total, and we were never at the same place at the same time. My cousin Enzo, who was thirteen at the time was the one who translated the stories and jokes my grandmother told. My mother, even though Spanish was her first language, had never taught me a word of the language but I suppose she thought I was too young.

We became close, Enzo and I and I looked up to him like a big brother. He was very welcoming and understanding. At the family dinners Enzo told me which food was which in Spanish. He taught me Spanish to a great extent. In fact my interest in Spanish was born primarily because Enzo was a very good teacher. My mother took me to a nearby Catholic School St. Teresa’s Kindergarten where the students were predominantly black or Hispanic. It was from this early age that I learnt about many diverse cultures. At the kindergarten level we interacted as brothers and sisters, blacks and Hispanics and the few Caucasian students.

I remember one instance growing up in San Diego when I was in tenth grade, a freshman in high school, our class got a new classmate Lee Chong who was in fact from China. He knew a little bit of English. His native language was Cantonese and he knew only a little bit of English. I instantly remembered my first interaction with Enzo and became close friends with Lee. Lee was very brilliant. I taught him English and he was a quick learner. Their family was into the restaurant business and they had come all the way from Hong Kong. Lee’s uncle who ran a chain of restaurants in San Diego had opened one large restaurant and decided to acquire the services of his younger brother, a chef struggling in the highly competitive restaurants of Hong Kong.

Lee and I became friends immediately. I even remember one instance when a twelfth grader, a known bully in school, intimidated Lee in the locker room hallway and I intervened. Lee and I were in the hallway. I was talking to Alex, a classmate and Lee was reading the notice board with moderate success because by then he was not that conversant in English. This bully, Kevin came striding through the hallway with his buddies. He was looking for attention, as he often did and the first thing he noticed was Lee, peering at the notice board through his rather thick glasses. Kevin came and tapped Lee on the shoulder rather heavily, his glasses almost came off. I made a move immediately but it was Alex shrill feminine shout that caught the ear. “Hey, why don’t you pick somebody your own size?” she shouted at the bully. Kevin was so caught off guard that when I said “Yeah Kevin” all he did was wheel around, glare at Lee and get lost. Lee took only two school semesters to fully acclimatize to the new climate and in that time I learnt Mandarin and Cantonese. These two moments in my life are what have shaped me into the man I am right now and I am thankful for them.

The Financial Economic Journal article; Law, finance, and economic growth in China by Allen and Qian (2005)

 

Reflective Essay on Law, Finance, and Economic Growth in China

Article Summary

The Financial Economic Journal article; Law, finance, and economic growth in China by Allen and Qian (2005), critically and creatively evaluates through comparisons and inferences on China’ alternative institutional arrangement, governing systems, law, and formal financial system. It also assesses the relationship between China’s economic growth and other countries’ financial development systems such as the Stock Market. Contemporary studies cited on China’s legal and fiscal systems establishments indicate signs of underdevelopment despite the rapid economic growth compared to other countries (Liang & Teng, 2006). For instance, the Chinese private sector grow is less inclusive equated to other Listed and State sector thereby demanding transformation to eliminate deficiencies. Comparatively, the Chinese State and listed sectors indicate successful development based on alternative mechanisms employed to build institutional relationships and reputation for other economies. Consequently, exposure of the key factors connecting the Chinese formal systems, financial, law, and economic growth lead to an understanding of how the nonstandard mechanisms impacts on promoting optimal growth and development for China and other countries (Allen, Qian & Qian, 2005).

Broadly, the article employs scholarly evidence to explore China’s legal, financial and growth sectors visualizing the Status of Chinese economic based on GPD and growth to contrast the issue against the emerging economies rather than the developed ones. Allen, Qian, and Qian, explore the Chinese firms’ financial sources based on aggregated evidence as well as cross-country evidence on annual growth rates, Purchase Power Parity, and population density. They also access evidence on both Listed and Private Sector to demonstrate different types of the corporate governance, stocks, ownership structures, financing, valuation, and dividends. Survey and anecdotal evidence, for example, were used by the author to provide background information on the successful regions evaluated as a justification of the findings and results obtained.

Agreeing with the Article Argument

Analyses on the authors’ argument in the article indicate delivery of facts, figures, and substantiation from an informed and expert position, which make it worth agreeing with the authors’ arguments. The article covers the visualization of China’ as an alternative institutional arrangement with different governing systems, law, and formal financial system. These areas form China’s economic growth and relate well with its development targets and agenda. They are also factual through the use of figures and numbers and can be measured scientifically, socially and politically given the current chine’s position as an emerging economy and as an influence in the world economy.

The second reason for agreeing with the article is a result of the examinations provided in the three major economic sectors that include the state and government controlled companies and enterprises, the publicly traded and exchange sector called listed and the private sector, which is under private ownership. In reviewing the imbalance of the three sectors, and the support for private sector, the article is keen on using measures that include banking systems’ domination and the ongoing privatization process. It samples more than 1000 firms, listed and traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SHSE) and Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) with an indication of concentrated equity on State for firms converted from the State Sector and founder families for the private firms (Allen, Qian & Qian, 2005).

As demonstrated from the research by Liang and Teng (2006), the status of the Chinese economy, which is also the position of the article, make it among the most impactful in the world. The country’s growth domestic Product (GDP) in 2002 stood at U.S $1,237 ahead of Canada and Spain but now is at $11,391.620 only behind the United States (China GDP, 1960-2016). The feat is remarkable given that China’s rapid growth only started in 1979. Other comparisons in the article indicate the same effect of fast Chinese growth. On the legal system, China classifies as an English-origin, which is true given the protection offered to investments and the upholding of creditor and shareholder rights. These attributes, also proclaimed by Liang and Teng, (2006) contribute to strengthening the financial system allowing venture in various finance and capital markets and line with the country’s equity versus the population. The mitigation measures outlined in the article such as the formation of the state-owned asset management companies assigned to cash recovery on the bad loans and improving loan structures. Based on an outright reliability of the authors’ point of view the findings and results, I find them accurate and reliable to generalize or use for future studies. One way for this is the referencing from credible sources such as financial, law and politic journals, empirical perspectives, case studies and renowned authors among others further justifying the article’s standpoint. For instance, the authors employ both survey and anecdotal evidence to obtain the background information about the most successful regions or sectors in China.

Evaluating the authors’ argument persuasiveness based on the consistency of point made for the authors’ key inferences and assumptions. The general assumption made by the authors while exploring the topic of research is that the economic status, legal systems and financial system of a country affect the overall economic growth and development. The brief description of the authors’ variables and sources, strong inferences and conclusion serves as the best tool and build up in building the authors’ arguments. For this reason, I concur with the authors’ arguments on the topic of study about China’s financial, legal and economic growth

Reflection on the Economic and Financial

in China 

Statistically, an economic and financial study of China’s financial, law, institutions and economic growth in shows that China serves as a counter example in analyzing weak financial and legal systems despite fastest growing economies

Liang & Teng, 2006). The economic and financial phenomenon as learned in previous literature tends to support market-based systems where openness and the role of the state play an important part in the country’s financial system development. From a deregulation and financial liberalization point of view, relational, financial systems are regarded as a better approach for long-term Chinese economic development compared to a market-based system (Bruton & Ahlstrom, 2003). In this regard, the Chinese economic growths evolve as the financial systems progress with the financial globalization changes and the alterations of the Chinese power relationships (Bruton & Ahlstrom, 2003).Also, the economic politics affects financial systems directly.

The economic and financial systems constitute financial institutions and market arrangements that channel the country’s savings for corporate governance and productive uses. Though, as asserted by (Lee, 2015), the positive correlation between economic and financial development result to better monitoring and allocation of financial resources where financial systems are either categorized as bank-based or market-based. Therefore, similar financial market development and banks influence on the economic outcome. Chinese lower economic performance compared to the developed economies is as a result of inadequate financial and legal systems based on its inefficiency market-based system (Lee, 2015). This is an indication of a high moral hazard that exposes the government policies to economic fragility and financial crisis.

While no financial system is complete, each of the Chinese market and bank-based financial systems has its benefits and disadvantagesMarket-based financial systems are considered stronger and better compared to bank market systems as they can generate adequate data about different firms’ performance as well as reflecting on all the fundamentals requirements in a real financial sector (Lee, 2015). The components of the stock market are use essential in the effective financial motoring process as they can visualize market stock prices and potential bad economic performances (Bruton & Ahlstrom, 2003). Therefore, maximizing the stock market values by firms has a positive implication of improving the economic growth and performance. However, financial market success gives a better reason for corporate groups to allocate resources to their affiliate firms. This reason, China uses bank loans and self-fundraising commercial channels as financial channels to finance Chinese companies consequently determining the stock market bottom line through price speculations that lead to high transaction costs (Lee, 2015). Evaluation of the Chinese bank-based systems benefits and their particular limitations demonstrate that the existing financial debts help in solving cash flow misreporting as it exerts economic disciplinary effect.

Alternative governance and financial mechanism serve as a turning point in supporting the growth and development of the Chinese private sector through reputation and relationship that enable firms to overcome asymmetric data problems that inhibit contract enforcement and coalitions. Cultural and religious factors also play a significant role in investors’ protection, institutional development and legal origin in venturing capital industry growth and development(Bruton & Ahlstrom, 2003).  To add to these factors, the Chinese economic situation has high social trusts that serve as an alternative mechanism for the development of substantial financial incentives to increase economic participation. Product and input market competitions work successfully in the country by creating a relatively strong comparative advantage for organization thriving and survival. Moreover, the existence of low entry barriers promotes high levels of market competitions allowing companies to grow and develop economically.

The financial, legal, and economic environment control and ownership separation protect shareholders in countries with dominant ownership structures such as China. At the same time, input suppliers cooperation by forming market compliances and coalitions ensures the optimal outcome of financing and legal systems (Bruton n& Ahlstrom, 2003). However, profit sharing among the firms enables firms’ growth, reputations, and contractual agreement. As a transitional economy, China and its firms have to adjust both their financial and legal systems to strengthen their economic growth and development. The result will be a diversified commercial work for the transitional economy that is likely to work regardless of the socialistic Adopt drastic economic reforms such the Chinese economy may not work due to the Confucius’s influence that essential changes in society should be gradual and fully implemented only after they prove correct, thus reinforcing the existing financial and legal systems

Through analyzing different governance systems and their economic support, much can be learned from the Chinese Communist Party based on its autocratic nature, but with the ability to support and promote financial and legal systems for economic growth especially for Private Sector. The government plays a significant role in financial, legal and economic growth reform process especially for transitional and socialist economies (Liang & Teng, 2006). As socialist governments experience limited support for economic grow progression, much can be observed from democratic economies and richer countries in supporting financial and legal systems(Liang & Teng, 2006). For instance, the government officials play a vital role in implementing alternative governing mechanisms and institutional arrangements for the development of financial and legal systems and should be consulted for efficient implementation of an alternative mechanism for economic development. They also help incorporate the three pillars of financial and legal system constructions entailing information systems, legal environment, and market support system. The Chinese legal environment allows normal market operations as information systems address asymmetric constructs based on information credibility and authoritativeness (Bruton &Ahlstrom, 2003). Finally, market support systems allow investors in alternative mechanisms to improve their experiences and expertise.

Suggestions for Future Reforms Economic Financial Phenomenon in China 

The future financial and economic reforms should be directed towards the liberalization of financial and economic matters as globalization takes effect in many countries. Future studies need to encourage China’s successful Private Sector transformation to better alternative methods in the state deficiency and listed sectors As suggested by Lee (2015), it is imperative that future explorations on financial opening, liberalization and globalization conducted to visualize proficient financial adjustments that include changes in financial systems, handling a crisis, and alterations in the legal functions. It is equally important to implement better legislative policies that strengthen the pillars of financial and juridical systems construction such as education, information systems, money control, the legal environment, and support market systems. As a populous nation, there is a need to have reforms in areas including social welfare, housing, insurance, employment policies and the state-owned enterprises, which affect the financial system. These will be achieved through initiating favorable determinant areas that include taxation, foreign investment policy, exit policy, power to make decisions, and decentralization thereby ensuring credibility and disclosure of vital information connect economic growth, finance, and legal systems. It is expected that the reforms will be pragmatic due to the obvious basis of experimentation of rather than the use of ideology in China, but adopting a more rapid and privatized system that leases operation of the state-owned assets (Lee, 2015). Consequently, the move will promote efficiency for the enterprises and allow or encourage the development of other non-state and foreign sectors that highly account for china’s economic growth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Allen, F., Qian, J., & Qian, M. (2005). Law, finance, and economic growth in China. Journal of financial economics, 77(1), 57-116

Bruton, G. D., & Ahlstrom, D. (2003). An institutional view of China’s venture capital industry: Explaining the differences between China and the West. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 233-259

Lee, K. (2015). Firm Size and Economic Growth in China. Journal of International and Area Studies, 22(1), 93-112. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/43490282?ref=search-gateway:02e1467df7209097e69d2cd074664c2f

Liang, Q., & Teng, J. (2006). Financial development and economic growth: Evidence from China. China Economic Review, 17(4), 395-411. doi:10.1016/j.chieco.2005.09.003